As covid-19 continues to create chaos over the globe, it’s high time for the scientists to think and to come up with the treatment of the novel coronavirus. At present, when we are writing this blog, the total death reported is 2213 in India. This number is increasing every minute.
Scientists and researchers are racing to find out the antidote of this virus. They found “HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE”;“LOPINAVIR”, “RITONAVIR” but these drugs aren’t an exact antidote to reduce the number of death to ZERO.
Approximately 30 trials are going in India to produce vaccines.
It has been rightly said-
“TURN YOUR WOUNDS INTO WISDOM”
So, history is repeating itself once again “CONVALESCENT PLASMA THERAPY” is following the light of HOPE in present scenario!
Plasma is pale yellowish liquid part of the blood . It carries proteins, minerals, nutrients to different parts.
It contains certain protein, clotting factor, electrolyte and ANTIBODIES.
WHAT IS CONVALESCENT PLASMA THERAPY?
~Based on passive immunisation.
~Plasma in the blood contain certain antibody to fight with foreign bodies.
~Some blood cells act as memory cell which stores memory of certain antigen antibody reaction.
~When the same kind of antigen come in contact with memory cell , it is detected quickly.
~Formation of antibody occurs which leads to SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE.
COVID 19 IS NEW STRAIN OF VIRUS, SO THAT THERE IS NO ARTIFICIAL ANTIBODY IS AVAILABLE.But, the patient who was infected with the novel coronavirus develops antibodies, as a natural immune response to the foreign pathogen . This antibodies acts as a SAVIOUR for other novel corna infected patients.
•A sufficient amount of antibody must be administered. When given to susceptible person, this antibody will circulate in the blood, reach tissue and provide protection against infection.
•Depending on the amount of antibody and composition, the protection conferred by the transfered immunoglobulin can last from weeks to month.
•Transfer of blood substances:
As the blood transfusion takes place there are risk that an inadvertent infection might transfer to patient.
•Enhancement of infection:
Therapy might fail in some individual and can result in enhanced form of infection.
•Effect on immune system:
Administration of antibody may suppress the normal immune ability of body and lead to other infection .
WHO CAN DONATE PLASMA?
• According to US FDA rules, donor are those for covid 19 patients whose infections began 28days prior.
•Age is between 18 to 60 years of age.
•Weight is above 50kg
•Not suffering from any transmissible disease.
•Pulse rate should be normal( 50-100 without any irregularities)
•Hb level- min. 12.5
•Blood pressure and Body temperature should be normal.
•Should not have got piercingor tattoo in past 6months.
HISTORY OF PLASMA THERAPY
•SARS OUTBREAK IN 2002:
80 people were administered convalescent plasma . It was found that ” people treated with plasma therapy within 2weeks of showing symptoms had a higher chance of being discharged from hospital than did those who weren’t treated”.
•H1N1 OUTBREAK IN 2009:
It was found that it helped reduce respiratory troubles and lowered the risk of mortality.
•EBOLA VIRUS OUTBREAK IN 2014:
The WHO had prioritised the evaluation of convalescent plasma therapy.
A study with 84 Ebola-infected patients revealed that “the transfusion of up to 500 ml of convalescent plasma with unknown levels of neutralizing antibodies was not associated with a significant improvement in survival”. Essentially, that convalescent plasma therapy did not turn out to be of much help in the case of Ebola virus.
PLASMA THERAPY AND COVID 19:
This therapy is already explored in CHINA, US, ITALY AND CANADA.
Study published in march showed that 10 adults who were severely ill with Covid 19 tolerated the transfusion well and started developing antibodies that helped reduce the viral load within 7 days.
On April 8, 1st convalescent plasma therapy was given to patient of 49yrs old ,the Saket branch of Max Hospital.The patient has recorded and tested negative.
2nd patiënt of 80s was given plasma therapy but the patient died on 15th April 2020.
On 14th April ,DCGI cleared the protocols proposed by ICMR for these trial and has laid down specific condition to met during the trials..
On 20th April 2020,a clinical trial of convalescent plasma Therapy, with two covid 19 patients at Ahmedabad municipal corporation-run SVP hospital being transfused with plasma from recovered patients. The condition was stable ; Principal health Secretary Jayanti Ravi said.
25th April,2020;ICMR gave the permission for clinical trials of plasma therapy;under the scientific title of “A phasell ;open label ;randomised controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma to limit covid 19 associated complications in moderate disease.”
On 25th April;Karnataka started the trial ;mainly on the patients who were critical.”Being on ventilator support & low oxygen saturation are prerequisites for plasma therapy “doctors said on 29thapril2020.
Plasma therapy has not yet started in Kerala;through it was first to seek approval from ICMR.
In Indore 4patients were injected with plasma on 26th April at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences.After few days patients were stable.
On 26th April a similar convalescent plasma therapy trial was done in Maharashtra (Mumbai)on 53yrs old male patient ;the 1st to undergo plasma therapy passed away on April 29;saidDr Ravishankar;CEO Lilavati hospital;mumbai.
Maharashtra health minister said 2good results were seen on the covid 19 patients.
In Lucknow : one 58yrs old critical patient was given the plasma on 3rd may at KGMU who died on 9th may due to heart attack says Dr Khan due to high blood pressure and diabetes .Two reports of his sample came out to be negative said vice-chancellor.
On May4; ICMR approved 21 institutions in PLACID trial out of 111 institution who showed their interest in participating in clinical trial.
The PLACID trial protocol has been registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI). The study has also received approval from the COVID-19 National Ethics Committee (CONEC), and the generic protocol was approved by the Drug Controller General of India.
• Further, research and study is going in PGI Chandigarh and Delhi.
Hope, This therapy helps us to bring happiness once again.
PLASMA THERAPY : A RISING HOPE